HSC: What’s the difference between Ancient History and Modern History?

Modern History covers mainly the 19th and 20th centuries. Ancient History stretches back to the first written records of humanity. For the HSC examination, Modern History requires 2 essays in the HSC exam compared to one for Ancient History, however, both require substantial reading and writing. Furthermore, Ancient History tends to have a social, cultural, and archaeological focus, while Modern History emphasises domestic politics and international affairs. Ancient History also requires the study of a key historical personality, while Modern History focuses on the forces, such as ideas, nations and movements that shaped the 20th century.